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Outline:- Motivation - Overview of failure modes which are expected to be designs driven for future blades.- How can these problems be addressed and solved in the future?- Example on how to find the root cause of failures.- Summary
This paper reviews the objectives and techniques used in the control of horizontal axis wind turbines at the individual turbine level, where controls are applied to the turbine blade pitch and generator.
Energy-related incidents and issues " the BP-Macondo oil spill, the disaster at Japans Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility, the Solyndra bankruptcy, high gasoline prices, Americas growing capacity to develop oil and natural gas resources, etc. " have grabbed headlines in recent years, and have driven renewed focus on energy policy and the public discourse surrounding it. This is highlighted by the fact that, in April 2012, 81% of the advertisements that aired in opposition to President Obamas reelection focused on energy, according to Kantar Media research. Recent polls suggest that this heightened focus may be impacting the publics perception of energy policy and what its priorities should be. For example, a 2010 Gallup poll noted that the public, when asked to choose between the two, expressed a preference for energy production over environmental protection for the first time in the polls history. Subsequent Gallup polls indicate this preference remains, though the degree of preference is shifting. However, are energy production and environmental protection necessarily at odds? Can policymakers pursue multiple goals simultaneously? While polls like this capture the public mood well, they do little to inform policymaking as they suggest unavoidable competition between energy policy goals (i.e. the U.S. can either produce energy or protect the environment, but not both). However, competition between goals is not always the casein late 2011, Sandia National Laboratories and surveyed 884 energy professionals on their energy policy preferences. Rather than asking respondents to identify their favorite policy goal, this survey asked respondents to allocate 100 points across three separate, commonly accepted energy policy goals: the Environment, Economics, and Energy Supply Security. The surveys results suggest areas for improvement in the national energy policy discourse, and a framework for thinking about energy policy that may help policymakers and advocates to devise new approaches and to better communicate their views.
Summary:-Millions to Billions DOFs!- Not suitable for preliminary design.-Not suitable for aeroelastic analysis.-Unnecessary waste of engineers time and computing resources.- Testing is difficult and expensive, particularly for large blades.-State of the art: multibody dynamic simulation integrating both aerodynamic and structural concerns.-Success of this simulation relies on accurate blade modeling to link structural details with blade properties.
Outline: Introduction to Wetzel Engineering Overview of Design Factors-Materials Characterization & Application -Safety Factors-Current Methods in Failure Analysis -Fatigue Analysis Methods-Enhanced Test-Based Design Methods--Road map to Refined Substantiation
To benchmark the current U.S. wind turbine fleet reliability performance and identify the major contributors to component-level failures and other downtime events, the Department of Energy (DOE) funded the development of the Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database by Sandia National Laboratories. This report is the second annual Wind Plant Reliability Benchmark, to publically report on CREW findings for the entire wind industry.