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Rotor blade assemblies and wind turbines are provided. A rotor blade assembly includes a rotor blade having exterior surfaces defining a pressure side, a suction side, a leading edge and a trailing edge each extending between a tip and a root, the rotor blade defining a span and a chord, the exterior surfaces defining an interior of the rotor blade. The rotor blade assembly further includes a loading assembly, the loading assembly including a weight disposed within the interior and movable generally along the span of the rotor blade, the weight connected to a rotor blade component such that movement of the weight towards the tip causes application of a force to the rotor blade component by the weight. Centrifugal force due to rotation of the rotor blade biases the weight towards the tip.
Grid modernization for the distribution systems comprise of the ability to effectively monitor and manage unplanned events while ensuring reliable operations. Integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and proliferation of autonomous smart controllers like microgrids and smart inverters in the distribution networks challenge the status quo of distribution system operations. Advanced Distribution Management System (ADMS) technologies are being increasingly deployed to manage the complexities of operating distribution systems. The ability to evaluate the ADMS applications in specific utility environments and for future scenarios will accelerate wider adoption of the ADMS and will lower the risks and costs of their implementation. This paper addresses the first step - identify and define the use cases for evaluating these applications. The applications that are selected for this discussion include Volt-VAr Optimization (VVO), Fault Location Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR), Online Power Flow (OLPF)/Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) and Market Participation. A technical description and general operational requirements for each of these applications is presented. The test scenarios that are most relevant to the utility challenges are also addressed.
Turbine wakes reduce power production in a wind farm. Current wind farms are generally built with turbines that are all the same height, but if wind farms included turbines with different tower heights, the cost of energy (COE) may be reduced. We used gradient-based optimization to demonstrate a method to optimize wind farms with varied hub heights. Our study includes a modified version of the FLORIS wake model that accommodates three-dimensional wakes integrated with a tower structural model. Our purpose was to design a process to minimize the COE of a wind farm through layout optimization and varying turbine hub heights. Results indicate that when a farm is optimized for layout and height with two separate height groups, COE can be lowered by as much as 5%-9%, compared to a similar layout and height optimization where all the towers are the same. The COE has the best improvement in farms with high turbine density and a low wind shear exponent.
Suzanne Tegen made this presentation at the 2017 Small Wind Conference in Bloomington, Minnesota. It provides an overview of DOE-sponsored small wind products, testing, and support; an example of a Regional Resource Center defending distributed wind; the recently published Distributed Wind Taxonomy; the dWind model and recent results; and other recent DOE and NREL publications related to small and distributed wind.
Wind capacity and generation grew rapidly in several European countries, such as Portugal. Wind power adoption in Portugal began in the early 2000s, incentivized by a continuous feed-in tariff policy mechanism, coupled with public tenders for connection licenses in 2001, 2002, and 2005. These policies led to an enormous success in terms of having a large share of renewables providing electricity services: wind alone accounts today for ~23.5% of electricity demand in Portugal. We explain the reasons wind power became a key part of Portugal's strategy to comply with European Commission climate and energy goals, and provide a detailed review of the wind feed-in tariff mechanism. We describe the actors involved in wind power production growth. We estimate the environmental and energy dependency gains achieved through wind power generation, and highlight the correlation between wind electricity generation and electricity exports. Finally, we compare the Portuguese wind policies with others countries' policy designs and discuss the relevance of a feed-in tariff reform for subsequent wind power additions.
Remote sensing of wind using lidar is revolutionizing wind energy. However, current generations of wind lidar are ascribed a climatic value of uncertainty, which is based on a poor description of lidar sensitivity to external conditions. In this presentation, we show how it is important to consider the complete lidar measurement process to define the measurement uncertainty, which in turn offers the ability to define a much more granular and dynamic measurement uncertainty. This approach is a progression from the 'white box' lidar uncertainty method.
The planetary load sharing characteristics of wind turbine gearboxes supported by cylindrical roller bearings (CRBs) and preloaded tapered roller bearings (TRBs) when subjected to rotor moments are compared in this work. Planetary bearing loads were measured in field-representative dynamometer tests and compared to loads predicted by finite-element models. Load sharing was significantly improved with preloaded TRBs. In pure torque conditions, the upwind planet bearing loads in the gearbox with preloaded TRBs were a maximum of 1.14 compared to 1.47 in the gearbox with CRBs. Consequently, the predicted fatigue life of the complete set of planetary bearings for the gearbox with preloaded TRBs is 3.5 times greater than that of the gearbox with CRBs.
This study compares the impact of drivetrain configuration on the mass and capital cost of a series of wind turbines ranging from 1.5 MW to 5.0 MW power ratings for both land-based and offshore applications. The analysis is performed with a new physics-based drivetrain analysis and sizing tool, Drive Systems Engineering (DriveSE), which is part of the Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model. DriveSE uses physics-based relationships to size all major drivetrain components according to given rotor loads simulated based on International Electrotechnical Commission design load cases. The model's sensitivity to input loads that contain a high degree of variability was analyzed. Aeroelastic simulations are used to calculate the rotor forces and moments imposed on the drivetrain for each turbine design. DriveSE is then used to size all of the major drivetrain components for each turbine for both three-point and four-point configurations. The simulation results quantify the trade-offs in mass and component costs for the different configurations. On average, a 16.7% decrease in total nacelle mass can be achieved when using a three-point drivetrain configuration, resulting in a 3.5% reduction in turbine capital cost. This analysis is driven by extreme loads and does not consider fatigue. Thus, the effects of configuration choices on reliability and serviceability are not captured. However, a first order estimate of the sizing, dimensioning and costing of major drivetrain components are made which can be used in larger system studies which consider trade-offs between subsystems such as the rotor, drivetrain and tower.
The large variability and uncertainty in wind power generation present a concern to power system operators, especially given the increasing amounts of wind power being integrated into the electric power system. Large ramps, one of the biggest concerns, can significantly influence system economics and reliability. The Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP) was to improve the accuracy of forecasts and to evaluate the economic benefits of these improvements to grid operators. This paper evaluates the ramp forecasting accuracy gained by improving the performance of short-term wind power forecasting. This study focuses on the WFIP southern study region, which encompasses most of the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) territory, to compare the experimental WFIP forecasts to the existing short-term wind power forecasts (used at ERCOT) at multiple spatial and temporal scales. The study employs four significant wind power ramping definitions according to the power change magnitude, direction, and duration. The optimized swinging door algorithm is adopted to extract ramp events from actual and forecasted wind power time series. The results show that the experimental WFIP forecasts improve the accuracy of the wind power ramp forecasting. This improvement can result in substantial costs savings and power system reliability enhancements.